Mangala Development Pipeline (MDP)
The MDP is designed to evacuate the crude oil produced from the Rajasthan assets and provide access to markets. It is the world’s longest, continuously heated and insulated pipeline. Starting at the MPT, it passes through eight districts across two states, i.e. Rajasthan and Gujarat. The pipeline ends at the coastal location of Bhogat near Jamnagar on the western coast of India.
The construction from Mangala Processing Terminal (MPT) to Salaya was completed in a record time of 18 months. The MPT to Salaya section (~590 km) of the pipeline continues to safely deliver crude oil to Indian refiners and is operating in line with the current production profile. The balance section between Salaya to Bhogat (~80 km) has been completed and the terminal at Bhogat is ready to receive crude. With the commissioning of these facilities will enable Cairn to utilize sea routes for the evacuation of Rajasthan crude oil.
The MDP is not a conventional pipeline. Its technological ingenuity was necessitated on account of the waxy nature of crude oil. The challenge was to ensure that the crude oil remains above the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) of 65°C through its entire length. This required Cairn to build a continuously heated and insulated pipeline to maintain mobility and flow through its journey over the entire length of the pipeline.
The pipeline also incorporates a Pipeline Intrusion Detection System. This provides security cum surveillance along the entire length of the pipeline, utilising a fibre optic system that generates an alarm. This is linked to a central control unit via a Distributed Control System (DCS). The pipeline is monitored at the MPT, Viramgam and Bhogat terminals for flow, temperature, pressure, and other operational parameters.
Cairn had embarked on a project to de-bottleneck the MPT to Salaya section so that it could handle additional production.
- Adopting a proven approach, that utilises polymer additives in the pipeline which play the role of Drag Reducing Agents (DRAs) to increase the flow of waxy crude. DRAs are used in crude oil pipelines to increase flow efficiency and reduce turbulence, allowing the oil to flow under a reduced frictional drag environment.
- DRAs increase the pipeline export capacity without the need to add any booster pumping infrastructure. Capacity enhancement can be achieved within short time and no major equipment is needed under this process. Moreover, it allows for greater operational flexibility.
This project was successfully completed in FY2013. It has been tested and proven to deliver higher volumes in line with Cairn’s planned production ramp up.
Bhogat Terminal Facilities
The Bhogat terminal in the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, is a 160-hectare site located 8 km from the Arabian Sea coast. The terminal will facilitate the storage and evacuation of crude by sea. Some key elements of the Bhogat terminal are:
- Two 24" sub-sea export pipelines from the Bhogat landfall point to the Single Point Mooring (SPM) system to enable crude transfer.
- SPM system and sub-sea pipeline end manifold in the deep sea to enable tanker berthing and loading.
The map shows Cairn’s assets – one block in Rajasthan, two on the west coast and four on the east coast of India and one in South Africa.